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Despite the consequences of fire being largely borne by low- and middle-income countries, especially in rapidly developing cities, fire safety systems (policies, infrastructure, institutions, public education, etc.) are severely lacking and not fit for purpose in many cities. The same could be said for much of the humanitarian sector. There is a dire need and opportunity to expand and strengthen capacities, not only for fire response, but for the design, management, and use of the built environment and in relation to education and economic activities, both formal and informal. Kindling aims to promote fire safety development by supporting institutions, partner organizations and communities  through research, advocacy, education & training, pilot projects, and eventually through the development of long term programs



Expanding and sharing the breadth and depth of knowledges related to fire safety inequalities and systematically identifying opportunities to improve fire safety



Promoting institutionalization of appropriate fre safety policies and practices into existing systems of urban development, disaster risk reduction, and humanitarian assistance


Education & Training


Pilot Projects

Capacity building of communities vulnerable to fire and of practitioners and authorities who engage with, and may infuence fire safety of vulnerable populations

Exploring what works and 
what doesn’t by bringing 
theory into practice, 
through co-design and 
implementation of fire 
safety projects with 
vulnerable communities 
and key partners

State of the Field Review - Fire Safety in Humanitarian Settings

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Baseline Fire Safety Assessment:
Marketplaces in Hargeisa, Somaliland

This report shares the findings and recommendations from a baseline fire safety assessment of marketplaces in Hargeisa, Somaliland carried out by Kindling, and commissioned by the British Office, Hargeisa. The assessment was carried out in response to the fire that devastated Waheen marketplace on 1 April 2022. 


Following a review of available literature, the Kindling team visited Hargeisa in May 2022 and conducted a series of interviews with government bodies, fire services, non-governmental organisations, and civil society organisations. The team also visited Waheen Market, Gobanimo Market, and the State House Internally Displaced Persons 
(IDP) Camp.   

The assessment looks at fire risks in marketplaces across Hargeisa, taking into account existing fire safety systems and cultures, and opportunities and barriers to reducing fire risk. It recommends a number of strategic risk reduction measures to improve fire safety and reduce the likelihood of another fire of the scale experienced at Waheen.

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A comparative study of fire risk emergence in informal settlements in Dhaka and Cape Town

Catastrophic fires are frequent in informal settlements around the world, where one billion people live. A complex adaptive systems framework is developed to untangle the emergence and manifestation of fire risk. Insights from case study analysis in Dhaka, Bangladesh and Cape Town, South Africa reveal the importance of interdisciplinarity, broad participation, and systems mapping when addressing safety of complex systems.

This project was supported by the Royal Academy of Engineering and the Lloyd’s Register Foundation under the “Safer Complex Systems – Call for Case Studies – Stage 1B (Research) scheme” Comparative study of fire risk emergence in informal settlements in Dhaka and Cape Town.

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The Invisible US Fire Problem

Often thought to be a feature of development in rapidly urbanizing Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs), the phenomenon of fire among populations living in ‘slum conditions’ is a feature of American cities, and across the spectrum from urban areas to rural areas.

But news headlines seldom tell the stories of people living in these conditions suffering disproportionately from fire. Reframing this issue through a regulatory lens can offer new perspectives – what are the stories of fire in under-regulated buildings and the fire challenges related to homelessness, especially in unregulated and non-sheltered conditions?

This report outlines what we know and do not yet know about the interactions between regulatory blind spots, ambiguous application of existing fire safety regulatory regimes and informality in the US. By defining and framing these matters, this work aims to discover the breadth and depth of research and action needed to understand and ultimately address fire safety issues of insecurely and vulnerably sheltered populations in the US – the invisible US fire problem.

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A Look Back at Kindling's First Year
First Annual Review Report


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'Fire from the Dragon' 
Docummentary produced by Justin Sullivan in collaboration with the Western Cape Government to raise awareness of informal settlement fires in South Africa and some of the actions being taken to reduce fire risks.  Accessible here


European Fire Safety Community

Digital Summit 2020 - “Envisaging a Fire Safety Rating Scheme for Buildings”

Recording of breakout session

Does fire discriminate? A social justice approach to fire safety

2020 Global Shelter Cluster (GSC) Annual Meeting Session co-hosted by Kindling and Save the Children International

Recording of session

Strategizing Fire Safety in

Shelter & Settlements 


Arup event for which our founder, Danielle Antonellis was a panellist

Recording of session

Shocks + Stressors: A conversation about COVID, social justice, and climate

PyroLife International Symposium 2020 on Integrated Fire Management

Shifting Paradigms to Address Fire Safety Inequalities, Danielle Antonellis

Blog on event by Hugo Lambrechts

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