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"We believe in the power of relentless optimism, curiosity, and compassion to address systemic inequalities, integrate safety and resilience, and tackle intractable problems. By bringing together non-traditional actors, amplifying local voices, and applying science, engineering and systems thinking, we can make this world a safer and more resilient place for everyone."
Danielle Antonellis, Kindling Founder & Executive Director

Fire safety inequality is the unequal, disproportionate distribution of fire risk and fire consequences between groups of people in society or geographic areas

​The human cost of fire is staggering. Global estimates of annual lives lost are up to 300,000. 
To put this into perspective, this means fire kills up to 5 times more people than natural hazard related disasters on average. Annual fire related injuries affect an estimated 11 million people. While figures on property loss, disruption, fire response and impact to livelihoods are not readily available on a global scale, fire costs hundred of billions if not trillions of dollars annually.

Kindling's work is primarily focused on supporting communities living in emerging nations, low-income communities, and humanitarian contexts.


Why emerging nations?

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Image Credit: Ashraf Hendricks/GroundUp

Why low-income communities?

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Image Credit: Thomas Hawk

Why humanitarian contexts?

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© European Union 2018

The burden of fire is largely carried by emerging nations – 95% of fire deaths and injuries occur in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs), where death rates are nearly six times higher than in High-Income Countries (HICs). 

Little is known about the incidence, impact and causes of fires in LMICs. Fire safety is largely neglected as a policy issue and is often not integrated into wider disaster risk reduction and resilience agendas at the municipal or national levels. Without adequate and locally appropriate social, technical, legal and financial systems to address this extensive risk, fire remains a significant issue.

For centuries, there has been a strong correlation between fire risk and socioeconomic factors. Poor and marginalized people are often exposed to significant fire hazards at their homes and at their places of work. Globally, 1.6 billion people live in inadequate shelter, many in informal settlements, where a single fire can displace up to 15,000 people. 


Beyond the immediate risks to life, fire poses a significant threat to property and livelihoods. Poor and marginalized people are particularly vulnerable due to factors such as limited access to healthcare, financial instability, a lack of social and financial safety nets and a lack of tenure. Fire undermines development and perpetuates vicious cycles of poverty, marginalization and hazard exposure and vulnerability.

Recent fires in Moria (Greece) and Cox’s Bazar (Bangladesh) highlight the devastating impacts a fire can have in a refugee camp. ​

UNHCR, the United Nations Refugee Agency, reported there were 79.5 million forcibly displaced persons in 2019 – this figure has almost doubled since 2009. While the majority of refugees and internally displaced persons (IDP) live in cities, others live in camps managed by humanitarian organizations. These UN and non-UN organizations respond to emergencies using an international humanitarian coordination system and international standards. While efforts are made to address fire risks, there are significant gaps in research, guidance and resources to support practical decision making in the field. As a cross-cutting issue, fire requires inter-agency and inter-cluster action and coordination.

Learn more about fire safety inequality here:

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